Domain Name Service (DNS) is the service used to convert human readable names of hosts to IP addresses. Host names are not case sensitive and can contain alphabetic or numeric letters or the hyphen. Avoid the underscore. A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) consists of the host name plus domain name
The part of the system sending the queries is called the resolver and is the client side of the configuration. The nameserver answers the queries. Read RFCs 1034 and 1035. These contain the bulk of the DNS information and are superceded by RFCs 1535-1537. Naming is in RFC 1591. The main function of DNS is the mapping of IP addresses to human readable names.
Domain Name System
The Domain Name System (DNS) is basically a large database which resides on various computers and it contains the names and IP addresses of various hosts on the internet and various domains. The Domain Name System is used to provide information to the Domain Name Service to use when queries are made. The service is the act of querying the database, and the system is the data structure and data itself. The Domain Name System is similar to a file system in Unix or DOS starting with a root. Branches attach to the root to create a huge set of paths. Each branch in the DNS is called a label. Each label can be 63 characters long, but most are less. Each text word between the dots can be 63 characters in length, with the total domain name (all the labels) limited to 255 bytes in overall length. The domain name system database is divided into sections called zones. The name servers in their respective zones are responsible for answering queries for their zones. A zone is a subtree of DNS and is administered separately. There are multiple name servers for a zone. There is usually one primary nameserver and one or more secondary name servers. A name server may be authoritative for more than one zone.
DNS names are assigned through the Internet Registries by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). The domain name is a name assigned to an internet domain. For example, mycollege.edu represents the domain name of an educational institution. The names microsoft.com and 3Com.com represent the domain names at those commercial companies. Naming hosts within the domain is up to individuals administer their domain.
Access to the Domain name database is through a resolver which may be a program or part of an operating system that resides on users workstations. In Unix the resolver is accessed by using the library functions "gethostbyname" and "gethostbyaddr". The resolver will send requests to the name servers to return information requested by the user. The requesting computer tries to connect to the name server using its IP address rather than the name.